70% chance of an El Nino developing by the end of this year

70% chance of an El Nino developing

Question-Which of the following is true about El-Nino?
(a)Warming phase of ENSO
(b)Cooling phase of ENSO
(c)Both
(d)None of the above
Answer-(a)
Related facts-

  • The World Meteorological Organization forecast “a 70% chance of an El Nino developing by the end of this year.”
  • El Nino is caused by periodic warming in the eastern Pacific Ocean which can cause drought in some regions, heavy rain in others.

About El Nino

  • El Nino is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean with a global impact on weather patterns. It is the warming phase of ENSO.
  • The cycle begins when warm water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean shifts eastward along the equator toward the coast of South America.
  • During normal condition, this warm water pools near Indonesia and the Philippines.
  • During an El Nino, the Pacific’s warmest surface waters sit offshore of northwestern South America.

About ENSO-

  • ENSO stands for El Nino Southern Oscillation.
  • It is an irregular periodic variation of wind and sea surface temperature over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • The warming phase of ENSO is called El Nino.
  • And cooling phase of ENSO called La Nina.

Effects of El Nino-

  • It affects weather as it favors eastern pacific hurricanes and tropical storms.
  • It reduces upwelling of cold water which results in decrease in upliftment of nutrients from the bottom of the ocean due to which marine life and sea birds are affected and consequently it affects fishing industry.
  • Rise in vector-borne diseases, including those spread by mosquitoes, in Central and South America. Cycles of malaria in India are also linked to El Nino.

La Nina-

  • La Nina means The Little Girlin Spanish. La Nina is also sometimes called El Viejoanti-El Nino.
  • La Nina represent periods of below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific.
  • La Nina impacts considered being opposite those of El Nino impacts.

References-

https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/sci-tech/2018-09-10-un-sees-70-chance-of-el-nino-event-this-year/

https://www.livescience.com/3650-el-nino.html

https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/ninonina.html

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