Chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2
Question: Consider the following statements regarding Chandrayaan 2 mission:
(1) Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1 in 2007.
(2) Chandrayaan-2 will be the first spacecraft to land close to the moon’s South Pole after the soft landing.
(3) The mission will perform extensive mapping of the lunar surface in order to trace the origin and evolution of the Moon.
of the above correct statement/s is/are:

(a) Only (1) and (3)
(b) Only (2) and (3)
(c) Both (1) and (2)
(d) Neither (1) nor(2)
Answer: (b)
Related facts:
  • On 22nd July, 2019, the powerful booster Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLVMkIII-M1) carrying Chandrayaan-2 on-board zoomed into space at 14.43 hours from the second launch pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1(in October 2008) to the unexplored moon’s South Polar Region.
  • Chandrayaan-2 will be the first spacecraft to land close to the moon’s South Pole after the soft landing.
  • Also, India would become the fourth ever nation to have a soft-landing on the moon expected to be on 7th September, 2019. Originally Chandrayaan-2 was scheduled to be launched on 15th July, 2019.
  • The mission objectives of India’s second expedition to the moon using Chandrayaan-2 include studying mineralogy and chemical composition of lunar soil, to search for water or ice in the near-South Pole of the moon, examining its atmosphere, studying lunar seismic activities and to carry out mapping of the moon using high-resolution cameras.

Why we are going to Moon:

  • The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions.
  •  Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

Why explore the lunar South Pole:

  • The lunar South Pole is especially interesting because a larger section of its surface stays in the shadow than the North Pole.
  • There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, the South Polar Region has craters that are cold traps, containing a fossilized record of the early Solar System.
  • Chandrayaan 2 will use the fully indigenous Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to attempt a soft landing in a high plain between two craters — Manzinus C and Simpelius N — at a latitude of about 70° south.


  • The GSLV Mk-III will carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. This three-stage vehicle is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and is capable of launching 4-ton class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
  • Its components are: S200 solid rocket boosters; L110 liquid stage; C25 upper stage


  • At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu as well as the Vikram Lander.
  • The mission life of the Orbiter is one year and it will be placed in a 100X100 km lunar polar orbit.

Lander — Vikram

  • It is designed to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days. Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The Lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface.

Rover — Pragyan

  • Chandrayaan 2’s Rover is a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan. It can travel up to 500 mts and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander.


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