सामयिक विषय: Scientific

First Pristine air-quality monitoring station

First Pristine air-quality monitoring station

Question: First Pristine air-quality monitoring station has been established by National Physical Laboratory in …
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Sikkim
Ans: (a)

  • Atmospheric monitoring station established by National Physical Laboratory in the campus of Institute of Himalayan Bio resource Technology (IHBT) at Palampur (H.P.) was dedicated to the nation on 17th March, 2017.
  • It is situated at an altitude of 1391 m for generating the base data for atmospheric trace species & properties to serve as reference for comparison of polluted atmosphere in India.
  • At this station, NPL has installed state of art air monitoring system, greenhouse gas measurement system and Raman Lidar.
  • A number of parameters like CO, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, O3, PM, HC & BC besides CO2 & CH4 are being currently monitored at this station which is also equipped with weather station (AWS) for measurement of weather parameters.
  • In India, air quality parameters are mostly measured in industrial and residential areas, however, data for air quality of pristine atmosphere is not available in India.
  • NPL’s station will contribute to fill this important gap. The NPL’s station will also serve as a base station for inter-comparison of air quality monitoring equipment being used in India to improve quality of monitored data in India.
  • The data generated by this station at Palampur will act as background data for the measured pollution at various cities in the country. The generated background data will be shared with different pollution control boards and agencies in the country so that the more precise pollution mapping traceable to standard values can be done
  • Setting up of such state of art monitoring systems in Himalayan region will help to assess the vulnerability of region’s sensitive ecosystem due to climate change & pollution.

Reference:
http://indiaeducationdiary.in/national-physical-laboratorynpl-csir-dedicates-first-pristine-air-quality-monitoring-station-palampur-nation/

Successful test of longer range version of BrahMos

Successful test of longer range version of BrahMos

Question: What is the range of new version of BrahMos which was successfully tested from Odisha coast on 11th March, 2017?
(a) 300 Km
(b) 350 Km
(c) 400 Km
(d) 450 Km
Ans: (d)

  • On 11th March, 2017, India successfully test-fired its latest 450-km range version of the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from the Odisha coast.
  • This is the first test of the missile after its strike range was extended following India’s entry in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).
  • The extended range BrahMos hit the target with centimetric accuracy.
  • The development of the extended range version of BrahMos was announced at the Aero India 2017 by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) chief S. Christopher.
  • BrahMos has been developed as part of a joint venture between India and Russia, and the missile had an initial range of 290 km. India has been able to work on increasing the range of the BrahMos missile from its current 290 km after it became a member of the prestigious Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).
  • Indian Army and Indian Navy have already inducted the 290-km BrahMos and it is likely to clear the final test for Indian Air Force soon.
  • In its current form (290-km), the BrahMos has a maximum velocity of 2.8 Mach and cruises at altitudes varying from 10 metres to 15 km.
  • The land-attack version of BrahMos is fitted on a mobile launcher.
  • BrahMos is also capable of being launched from submarine from a depth of 40-50 metres.

Reference:
http://www.livemint.com/Politics/bLQcyCpYCFtzmh2xbr77UP/India-successfully-testfires-BrahMos-supersonic-cruise-miss.html

NASA New Radar Technique searched Lost Lunar Spacecraft

NASA New Radar Technique searched Lost Lunar Spacecraft

Question: NASA’s JPL has succeeded in locating two lunar spacecraft. One of them is Chandrayaan-1 and the other is…
(a) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
(b) Surveyor 3
(c) Explorer 49
(d) Luna 10
Ans: (a)

  • According to press release by NASA on 9th March, 2017, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA has successfully located spacecraft orbiting the moon — one active, and one dormant.
  • NASA has succeeded in searching its own Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in lunar orbit with ground-based radar.
  • JPL’s team used NASA’s 70-meter (230-foot) antenna at NASA’s Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California to send out a powerful beam of microwaves directed toward the moon. Then the radar echoes bounced back from lunar orbit were received by the 100-meter (330-foot) Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia.
  • Its notable that Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft is very small, a cube about five feet (1.5 meters) on each side — about half the size of a smart car. Although the interplanetary radar has been used to observe small asteroids several million miles from Earth, researchers were not certain that an object of this smaller size as far away as the moon could be detected, even with the world’s most powerful radars.
  • Chandrayaan-1 proved the perfect target for demonstrating the capability of this technique.
  • This new technique could assist planners of future moon missions.

Reference:
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6769

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