सामयिक विषय: International

Ministerial Conference of the Non- Aligned Movement

Ministerial Conference of the Non- Aligned Movement (NAM)

Question- On 5th-6th April 2018, the Non- Aligned Movement Mid-Term Ministerial Conference will be held in Baku?
(a) Baku
(b) New Delhi
(c) Margarita Island
(d) Cairo
Answer: (a) 
Related Facts 

  • The Non- Aligned Movement Mid-Term Ministerial Conference will be held in Baku on 5-6 April. 2018 under the theme of “promoting international peace and security for sustainable development”.
  • Senior Officials meeting will be held on 3-4 April. 2018 as a part of the preparation process for the Ministerial Conference.
  • NAM Participating States, representatives of the Observer States and International Organizations, countries and institutions invited in the status of special guests will take part at the Mid-Term Ministerial Conference.
  • NAM includes 120 states 17 states and 10 international organizations have an observer status to NAM. NAM plays an important role in maintenance of the international peace and security.
  • In 2011 the Republic of Azerbaijan joined the movement at the XVI Ministerial Conference held in SaIi.
  • In 2019 the Republic of Azerbaijan will host the XVIII Summit of the HAM and will be chair of NAM between 2019 -2022.
  • A special web site has been created at www.nambaku.org for the Mid-Term Ministerial Conference of NAM to be held in Baku on 5-6 April.
  • Online accreditation of local and foreign media representatives is conducted through the Registration/For Media section of the web site. Deadline for media accreditation is March 12.2018.

Reference: 
https://www.un.org/pga/72/2018/04/05/mid-term-ministerial-conference-of-the-non-aligned-movement-promoting-international-peace-and-security-for-sustainable-development/
http://pretoria.mfa.gov.az/files/NAM.pdf

Global Ranking of Startup Ecosystem, 2017

Question: Which position has India got in the ‘Global Ranking of Startup Ecosystem, 2017’ issued by the startup blink recently?
(a) 23rd,
(b) 38th,
(c) 25th,
(d) 37th,
Answer: (d) 
Related Facts: 

  • In March 2018, the Startup Blink-Global Map of Startup Ecosystem issued ‘Global Ranking of Start-Up Ecosystem’, 2017.
  • More than 125 countries and more than 900 cities have been ranked according to their startup ecosystem strength.
  • The top 5 countries included in the list are:
  1. America
  2. United Kingdom
  3. Canada
  4. Israel and
  5. Germany.
  • In addition, Sweden (6th), Denmark (7th), Switzerland (8th), France (9th) and Singapore (10th) are among the top 10 countries.
  • India has ranked 37th in this list.
  • Singapore ranked top (ranked 10th) in Asian countries.
  • Singapore is followed by China 12th, South Korea 17th and Japan 20th.
  • According to the Startup Ecosystem Strength, the top five cities in the world are as follows:
    San Francisco (US, Silicon Valley)
    2. New York, US
    3. London, United Kingdom  4. Los Angeles, USA an
    5 Berlin, Germany.
  • Among the Indian cities, Bangalore has secured 21st, Delhi 23rd, Mumbai 32nd, Chennai 217th, Pune 218th, Noida 220th, Ahmadabad 222nd and Jaipur 223rd

Reference:             
https://www.startupblink.com/
https://www.startupblink.com/india-startups

Cambridge Analytica: Facebook User Data Leak Scandal

Question- Recently, the research firm Cambridge Analytica has been in news due to allegations to misuse of Facebook users’ data. At which of the following places its headquarters is located?
(a) New York
(b) Beijing
(c) London
(d) Abu Dhabi
Answer: (a) 
Related Facts: 

  • UK research firm Cambridge Analytica has been in news and discussion recently due to the misuse of personal data (data) of Facebook users.
  • Allegations that Cambridge Analytica using Facebook’s many applications and games like ‘Your true friend who is’ or ‘you are like a Hollywood star’, by obtaining data of approximately 5 crore Facebook users, their wrong Used.
  • Cambridge Analytica has headquartered in New York.
  • Its CEO is Alexander Nix.
  • Cambridge Analytica in India is affiliated to Strategic Communications Laboratories India (SCL India).
  • It is a joint venture of London’s SCL Group and Olevano Business Intelligence Pvt. Ltd.
  • Mark Zuckerberg is the Facebook’s Chairman and CEO, started on February 4th, 2004.
  • Facebook is headquartered in California, USA.
  • India’s Union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad has instructed to take strict legal action when data is leaked from Facebook.
  • It is estimated that there are about 20 million Facebook users in India, whose data is likely to be mis-used in the coming elections.
  • Social media site Facebook has billions of users worldwide, whose data security has been questioned once again.
  • It is important that the British company Cambridge Analytica created the software for the 2016 US presidential election, which could have an edge over the political trends of the people.
  • Although both companies have been denying such allegations till date.
  • But on March 21, 2018, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg said in his statement that security has been missed, which has ensured access to personal data of users to other parties.
  • Through Facebook, Facebook users from around the world can be easily accessed and, according to the requirement, these users should be classified into various categories such as education, fashion, sports etc. based on their hobbies (based on the information given in the personal data).
  • Facebook has created various types of applications and games to attract the attention of users.
  • Application or Game link is asked to login with the user, which is very easy to login from Facebook.
  • By login, the application ensures access to the user’s personal data, which was allowed only when the user logged on.
  • However, Facebook has banned developers from collecting data on users’ running applications.
  • In 2013, Cambridge University researcher Alexander Kogan created a personality quiz that was used by nearly 3 million Facebook users.
  • As a result, the access of the application to the data of him and some of his friends is ensured.
  • To prevent this, the book had completely restricted access to data from friends of the users in 2014.
  • The result of this restriction was that the application of a friend of a user could not have received the application till it had authorized the application for data.
  • Incorrect use of these data is done especially in the elections.
  • Cambridge Analytica was accused of misusing the data in the US presidential election, which led to the fact that Facebook could not separate from the charges.
  • After data leak, all the countries in the world have expressed concern.
  • However, advertising is the biggest source of Facebook earning. It is very easy to classify customers on Facebook.
  • The fact is that in the year 2011, the revolution in Egypt started with the Facebook page ‘Today He Killed Khaled’.
  • Later that page was named ‘We Are All Khaled Said’.
  • Solid steps taken by Facebook for data security –
  • Keeping in view the data security, Facebook has also instructed all the developers who have received the information till the year 2014 to examine the applications.
  • All applications with suspicious activity will be investigated. They will be completely banned if they do not cooperate in the investigation.
  • Due to reasons of personal data security, application developers will now be able to ensure access to the names, profile photos and email address information of the users.
  • Apart from this, they will have to get permission of users to obtain other information and sign agreement too.

Reference:                         
https://www.forbes.com/sites/kathleenchaykowski/2018/03/21/zuckerberg-speaks-on-breach-of-trust-in-cambridge-analytica-data-leak/#723e452a127d
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-43458110
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-43474760
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/cambridge-analytica-row-ravi-shankar-prasad-rahul-gandhi-bjp-congress-facebook-data-breach-5106262/
https://www.bbc.com/hindi/international-43494278

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